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Department of Pharmacology

Taylor, CW, Rahman, T, Tovey, SC, Dedos, SG, Taylor, EJA, Velamakanni, S

Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are intracellular Ca2+ channels that are regulated by IP3 and Ca2+ and are modulated by many additional signals. These properties allow them to initiate and, via Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, regeneratively propagate Ca2+ signals evoked by receptors that stimulate formation of IP3. The ubiquitous expression of IP3R highlights their importance, but it also presents problems when attempting to resolve the behavior of defined IP3R. DT40 cells are a pre-B-lymphocyte cell line in which high rates of homologous recombination afford unrivalled opportunities to disrupt endogenous genes. DT40-knockout cells with both alleles of each of the three IP3R genes disrupted provide the only null-background for analysis of homogenous recombinant IP3R. We review the properties of DT40 cells and consider three areas where they have contributed to understanding IP3R behavior. Patch-clamp recording from the nuclear envelope and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores loaded with a low-affinity Ca2+ indicator address the mechanisms leading to activation of IP(3)R. We show that IP3 causes intracellular IP3R to cluster and re-tune their responses to IP3 and Ca2+, better equipping them to mediate regenerative Ca2+ signals. Finally, we show that DT40 cells reliably count very few IP3R into the plasma membrane, where they mediate about half the Ca2+ entry evoked by the B-cell antigen receptor.

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Published date: 
September 2009
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Publication type: 
Journal articles
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Immunol Rev
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